Referring to the energy sources in Montenegro hydro and coal have the greatest potential. When it comes to renewable resources there are also other resources like hydro, for example wind energy, solar energy and biomass. Montenegro also has possible oil and gas reserves, but they are still in the exploration phase. Montenegro could ultimately supply itself with self-generated energy. The total production of all electricity generation plants is 3 billion kWh, which corresponds to 108 % of the country's consumption. Nevertheless, Montenegro engages in energy trade with foreign countries. In addition to pure consumption, production, imports, and exports play an essential role. Other energy sources such as natural gas or oil are also used.
Coal, Oil and Gas
The largest energy source to supply Montenegro is coal followed by oil, hydro and biofuel and waste. There are two spate geographical areas for coal production in the north and northeastern part of Montenegro: Pljevlja area and Berane area.
The Pljevlja area includes three basins (Pljevlja Basin, Ljuce-Sumansik Basin and Maoce Basin) and has a high degree of exploration. The other area is called Berane and is marginally explored. Its basins are Polica, Petnjik and Zagorje.
The second biggest energy source which supply Montenegro is oil. According to official data, Montenegro currently does not dispose of oil and natural gas reserves.
Previous explorations of oil and gas in the offshore of Montenegro indicate the perspective of this area. The existence of basic preconditions for oil and gas production in the offshore of southern Adriatic geological basin is proven and a direct confirmation of this fact is the production in the Albanian, Italian, and Croatian part of the basin.
Depending on the research results in the next 5-10 years, Montenegro could consider the possibility of exploiting oil and natural gas.
An important energy source for Montenegro is hydropower. The theoretical total potential for hydropower based on the main rivers amounts to 9.846 GWh/year or 9.85 TWh/year in 2019 and has gone up since. In addition, there is a theoretical potential of about 1,000 GWh/year based on small hydropower plants (SHPP, up to 10 MW). Montenegro’s fourth largest energy supply source is biomass and waste. Available sources of biomass in Montenegro are: wood biomass, biomass from agriculture, agricultural crops (energy crops), agricultural by-products (plant and animal residues), biofuels and biomass form waste.
In 2021, 29% of electricity came from hydropower; 19% form nuclear and coal come in second with 19% each; 17%of electicity is won through natrual gas.
Last update: 07 2023