Referring to the energy sources in Montenegro hydro and coal have the greatest potential. When it comes to renewable resources there are also other resources like hydro, for example wind energy, solar energy and biomass. Montenegro also has possible oil and gas reserves, but they are still in the exploration phase.
Referring to the energy data of the International Energy Agency electricity generation was about 3 TWh in Montenegro in 2016. The graph below shows that manly coal (29,4 %) and hydro energy (41.2 %) is used to produce electrical energy.
The largest energy source to supply Montenegro is coal followed by oil, hydro and biofuel and waste. There are two spate geographical areas for coal production in the north and northeastern part of Montenegro: Pljevlja area and Berane area.
The Pljevlja area includes three basins (Pljevlja Basin, Ljuce-Sumansik Basin and Maoce Basin) and has a high degree of exploration.
The other area is called Berane and is marginally explored. Its basins are Polica, Petnjik and Zagorje.
Oil and gas
The second biggest energy source which supply Montenegro is oil. According to official data, Montenegro currently does not dispose of oil and natural gas reserves.
Previous explorations of oil and gas in the offshore of Montenegro indicate the perspective of this area. The existence of basic preconditions for oil and gas production in the offshore of southern Adriatic geological basin is proven and a direct confirmation of this fact is the production in the Albanian, Italian, and Croatian part of the basin.
Depending on the research results in the next 5-10 years, Montenegro could consider the possibility of exploiting oil and natural gas.
Another important energy source for Montenegro is hydropower. The theoretical total potential for hydropower based on the main rivers amounts to 9.846 GWh/year or 9.85 TWh/year in 2015. In addition there is a theoretical potential of about 1,000 GWh/year based on small hydropower plants (SHPP, up to 10 MW). After all the total theoretical hydropower potential of Montenegro amounts to about 11 TWh/year in 2015. More info about hydropower and other renewable sources in Montenegro can be found in chapter “Renewable Energies” below.
Montenegro’s fourth largest energy supply source is biomass and waste. Available sources of biomass in Montenegro are: wood biomass, biomass form agriculture, agricultural crops (energy crops), agricultural by-products (plant and animal residues), biofuels and biomass form waste. More about biomass in Montenegro can be seen in chapter “Renewable Energies” below.
The different energy sources described above can be found in the following graph below. It shows the total primary energy supply of Montenegro divided into different energy sources.
Total electricity capacity was 4480,2 GWh in 2016. Almost half of the produced electricity comes from hydro production (41.2%).
Last update: 09 2019