The energy mix of the Czech Republic is dominated by the use of fossil fuel sources, primarily coal, lignite and oil. The country relies heavily on Russia for a large share of its gas and oil supplies, but has large coal and lignite reserves in the northern part of the Boheme. In order to reduce dependency and strengthen energy security, the government (as detailed in the State Energy Concept of 2014) will continue to expand its nuclear energy capacity to cover between 45 - 58% of the power mix by 2040. Due to high production costs, the coal and lignite sector of the Czech Republic is facing difficulties to remain cost-effective. As a result, the government is considering closing all of its hard coal mines by 2022 by offsetting the demand through nuclear energy.
The Czech Republic has 6 nuclear reactors, namely Dukovany 1, 2, 3 and 4, and two units at Temelin, which contribute to a significant share of power generation (4130 MW). Coal continues to play an important role, while the role of gas has been slowly increasing since 2016.
In the electricity sector, the Czech Republic aims to cover 16.9% of its electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2030. In the heating and cooling sector, the share of RE in final energy consumption should reach the target value of 30.7% in 2030.
In 2021, coal contributed the highest (40%) to power generation in the Czech Republic, followed by nuclear at 37%, gas at 9% and biomass at 6%.
Last update: 07 2023