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Energy supply – Energy Country Profile

Energy Supply

One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.

The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia.

Total primary energy supply (TPES) was reduced since 2017, probably also som COVID 19 affects played a contributing factor to that. In 2021 TPES amounted for just under 51.3 TWh.

In 2021 Coal hast been the primary energy source of supply with over 50%. the share of Biomass with 26% is already very considerable.

Power Generation

In electricity generation more than 3/4 came from coal and lignite. In the last years the generation from coal and lignite fell drastically.

In 2021 coal and lignite still made more than the half of power generation. Biomass and waste accounting for more than a quarter in 2021.

Data: Enerdata Graphs: AEA

Last update: 07 2023