- Area: 93.028 sq km
- Agricultural land: 58.9% (arable land: 48.5% , permanent crops: 2% , permanent pasture: 8.4%) (2018 est.)
- Forest: 22.5% (2018 est.)
- Other: 18.6% (2018 est.)
- Population: 9,728,337 (July 2021 est.)
- GDP: $321.869 billion (2019 est.)
- GDP per capita: $32,945 (2019 est.)
- GDP composition per sector: agriculture: 3.9% , industry: 31.3% , services: 64.8% (2017 est.)
The State Secretariat supervises energy and climate policies for Energy and Climate Policy under the Ministry of Innovation and Technology. The autonomous organization regulating the electricity and gas industries is the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority (MEKH), established in 1994.
Since 2010, the Public has started regaining control over the energy industry after two decades of liberalization through expanded state ownership. The state-owned energy company MVM purchased E.ON and RWE's stakes in gas delivery, storage, and distribution in 2013. Gas, electricity, and district heating energy supply at regulated pricing were combined in 2015 under one supplier, ENKSZ, which later changed its name to NKM.
Energy dealers and suppliers are now subject to an income tax known as the "Robin Hood tax" since 2009. Pre-tax profit serves as the tax's foundation, and in 2013 the rate increased from 11% to 31%. In 2013, a network tax (HUF125/year per meter of cable or pipe, or €0.3) was also implemented.
EU membership status
Hungary is an EU Member State since 1 May 2004 and has 21 seats in the European Parliament.
Hungary has a permanent representation in Brussels that ensures a communication with the EU bodies. This representation of the country intends to make sure that the country's interests are well represented in the EU.
Hungary took over the presidency of the Council of the EU between January - June 2011.
Last update: 07 2023