Serbia has limited oil and gas reserves (around 13.1 Mt and 5 bcm, respectively, in 2019). It has a significant lignite reserves accounting for 402 Mt in 2019.
Total capacity stood at slightly over 7.98 GW in 2019, with the highest shares coming from lignite (4.1 GW), hydro (3.1 GW) and oil and gas plants (0.34 GW). Wind energy capacity has been slowly increasing since 2015, accounting for 0.36 GW. The power mix is dominated by lignite (70.5%) and hydropower (27.1%) in 2019.
Serbia mainly exports its electricity to neighboring countries (Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Hungary and Montenegro) and imports mainly from Bulgaria, Romania and Montenegro.
Serbia has always been a net importer of oil and oil products and imports nearly 3/4 of its oi consumption. Although crude production rebounded over the period 2008-2013 after the acquisition of NIS by Gazprom, it has been on a declining trend ever since and in 2015 stood at 1.15 mtoe, the lowest level since 2011. Production has been falling mainly because of a lack of investments and unfavourable oil prices and margins over the past two years.
Crude oil imports rose by 14% in 2019 to 2.4 Mt. Around 70% of domestic oil supply is covered without import.
The country has a refining capacity of 96.000 b/d only at NIS's Pancevo refinery. Crude oil operations at the 50.000 b/d Novi Sad refinery were ceased in 2012 and the refinery now produces lubricants.
While Serbia produces oil and gas, the country remains highly dependent on imports, especially of gas and in particular from Russia. There is currently only one entry point for gas (from Hungary). In 2019, Serbia imported around 2.15 bcm of gas from Russia through Hungary and Ukraine, the import rose by 23 % compared to 2015.
Lignite extraction and transformation activities are carried out from open sky mines in two fields: Kolubara and Kostolac. In 2014, both fields were affected by floods and as a result, lignite supply fell sharply by 26 % to 30 million tonnes. In 2015, production has recovered and Kolubara provides more than 75% of production (29 million tonnes) and Kostolac around 8.4 million tonnes. The production in 2019 accounted for 6.96 Mtoe.
Last update: 03 2021