The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova provides the right to a healthy environment. The country is moving towards European integration and is part of the EU Neighbourhood Programme, which includes discussions on harmonisation of law, including environmental law. The three most significant environmental problems Moldova faces are water quality, soil degradation and loss of biodiversity. Currently, the energy sector is the main producer of emissions accounting for about 65%, including transportation with 15%.
The annual quantity of pollutant gas emissions in Chisinau reaches approximately 100.000 tons, accounting for 115-120 kg of harmful substances per resident. As Moldova wants to decrease its GHG emissions by 2030 by up to 67% (reference year 1990) renewable energy sources are of major interest, which is also highlighted in the Moldovan Energy Strategy 2030 by increasing the share of renewables in the country´s final energy consumption up to 20% by 2020. Wind and biogas are the main renewable sources for electricity and should cover 10% of energy consumption by 2020 and 15% by 2030.
A major barrier in the development of renewable energy sources, including solar energy, was the old law on renewable energy which did not allow the construction of power sources with a capacity lower than 10 kW. In addition the calculation methodology for tariffs was not very clear as the tariff for the produced electricity was calculated separately for each producer. The new law promoting renewable energy that was intended to enter into force on 25.03.2017 would excludes these barriers.
In the Republic of Moldova only some areas benefit of favourable winds to build wind energy systems. Nevertheless, Moldova built 4 modern wind installations with a total capacity of 2.33 MW for commercial use. In 2017 the Energy Efficiency Agency financed the development of a Wind Atlas of the Republic Moldova, which officially was launched on 22 March 2017. According to the data shown by Energy Efficiency Agecy (2016) the total electricity produced by wind installation is estimated to amount to 9,1 TWh. This is close to the wind potential estimation of 11 TWh per year of the Renewable Development Initiative of the European Bank for Reconstruction.
In spite of the absence of own traditional energy resources and as a consequence of the vital necessity of using alternative energy sources in Moldova, solar energy is being used at a low level. Currently 2,3 MW of PV panels are installed for commercial use, half of which was financed in the frame of the MoSEFF project by EBRD. Also a PV station with a capacity of 1,2 MW is under construction and a tender for another 40 MW PV station was placed.
Currently a biomass boom can be registered in Moldova with the main sources of biomass to be used for energy purposes in the Republic of Moldova of the forestry, agriculture, livestock sector, food industry and the residential sector. Currently, in the Republic of Moldova biomass is used mainly for heating and cooking. The Forestry State Agency ‘Moldsilva’ provides about 300-400 thousand m3 of fuel wood per year. Potential as an alternative biomass source has straw, mainly wheat straw, and agricultural waste.
At the moment Moldova has only two hydro power plants (HPP), one on the Prut River and the other on the Nistru River, which are the two largest rivers in Moldova.
Last update: 07 2023