Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) [Clean Energy Technology Assessment Methodology Pilot Study, IEA, 2016] in Belarus was 27,7 Mtoe in 2014. This was 1.7% higher compared to 2013, albeit 9% lower than in 2012. The trend over the last decade has been a modest rise in energy supply: TPES was 3,6% higher in 2014 compared to 2004. Natural gas and oil are the main fuels in the Belarusian energy mix, representing 90,6% of TPES in 2014. Natural gas accounted for 61,1% and oil for 29,5% of TPES in 2014, shares that have not changed significantly over the last decade. Coal and peat represented 1,8% and 1,2% of TPES respectively. Renewable energy in Belarus accounted for 5,3% of TPES in 2014. Nearly all renewable energy is from biofuels and waste, with negligible amounts from hydro, wind and solar PV. Energy from biofuels and waste has increased by 43,4% since 2004, which is significantly faster than the 3,6% growth in TPES. As such, biofuels and waste have increased their share of the energy mix over the past decade, up from 3,8% in 2004. Hydropower production has grown three-fold over the past decade, albeit remaining at very low levels. Wind power production began in 2012, while solar PV power started in 2014.
Domestic gas and oil resources are very limited: oil is located in the Pripyat downward area in the southeast of the country where more than 80 oil deposits have been explored. The proven reserves are estimated at 27 million tonnes for oil and 20 billion cubic meters for gas. However, the country contains large reserves of oil shale, estimated at 8.800 million tonnes. Those reserves are not being exploited yet.
One of noticeable domestic fuel resources is peat and lignite. The investigated reserves of 39 peat deposit sites exploited in Belarus constitute about 87,2 million tonnes.
Electricity generation totalled around 35 TWh in 2016 and is fuelled mainly by natural gas. Natural gas represents about 98% of total fuel use with the remainder coming from oil (1,1%), biofuels and waste (0,4%), hydro (0,3%) and peat (0,1%). Over ten years to 2016, natural gas consumption in electricity generation has increased by around 15%, with its share in total generation up to 95%.
According to the new Concept of Energy Security, electricity demand is expected to increase to around 44 TWh by 2035, to be sourced from domestic production. This would represent an increase in production of 38% over 22 years.
In 2016 most power was generated by gas (96.4%), which is imported from Russia. All other power sources, nuclear, biomass, oil, coal, hydro and others, have a share of around 3% in total.
Domestic crude oil extraction is gradually declining from 1,785 million tonnes in 2005 down to 1,645 million tonnes in 2015 [National Statistical Committee]. Until now, more than 90% of supplies come from Russia (22.9 million tonnes in 2015[National Statistical Committee]). However, in 2011 Venezuela agreed to supply 30 million tonnes of oil to Belarus for three years at a cost of $19,4 billion.
Primary crude oil processing constitutes 21,16 million tonnes (2013). The country has two refineries in Mozyr (capacity of 170.000 bbl/d) and in Novopolotsk (capacity of 323.000 bbl/d).
The refining capacity is higher than the domestic needs, making Belarus an exporter of oil products (about 17,6 million tonnes per year). The length of oil transportation pipelines and oil products pipe lines is about 2983 km and 751 km, respectively.
Source: Belarus, Sixth National Communication on Climate Change, The Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Ministry of the Republic of Belarus, 2015
Domestic production of natural gas is low (225 million cubic meters) and the country imports gas from Russia (18,8 billion cubic meters in 2015). In 2004 and 2005 a dispute arose following a disagreement about the delivery and transport conditions of Russian gas exports to Belarus. The agreement signed in December 2006 made it possible to gradually switch to market gas prices from $50 per thousand cubic meters in 2006 to $100 per thousand cubic meters in 2007. In 2011, the average price of gas delivered by “GazProm” JSC (Russia) to Belarus was $265 per thousand cubic meters. Negotiations held in 2012-2013 resulted in reduction of this price down to $144 per thousand cubic meters in 2015. Belarus is also a client of three other Russian gas supply companies, i.e., “Itera” LLC, “TransNafta” JSC and “Sibur Holding” JSC.
The country is supplied through the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline, which is Russia’s only export route to Europe without crossing Ukrainian territory. Its extension is scheduled. Since late 2005 it has had a transit capacity of 38 billion cubic meters per year, following the commissioning of 4 compressor stations (Krupskaya, Slonimskaya, Minskaya and Orshanskaya). Approximately 20% of Russian gas exports to Central and Western Europe flow through Belarus.
In 2010 Gazprom modernized the Minsk-Vilnius-Kaunas-Kaliningrad pipeline to Lithuania and increased its capacity from 1,4 to 2,5 billion cubic meters per year. Total length of natural gas distribution network now constitutes about 49,5 thousand km.
Annual coal production in 2015 [National Statistical Committee] (mainly peat and lignite) currently stands at 1,015 million tonnes of oil equivalent, and is falling slowly. The country imports bituminous coal and coke amounting to 0,32 million tonnes of oil equivalent. The country exports peat and peat products in an amount of 0,14 million tonnes of oil equivalent. The bituminous coal and coke are not used for energy generation. Domestic peat and peat products are used in the energy sector (in CHPs and boilers) and cover about 0,1% of electricity production and 1,5% of heat production.
Wood fuel produced annually for energy purposes amounts to 5,0 million hard cubic meters. In addition, the country provides an annual export of about 134 thousand tonnes of wood pellets (UNECE Renewable Energy Status Report, 2015, REN21).
According to the Charter the Ministry of Energy organizes and coordinates the creation of nuclear energy and the implementation of the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant in Belarus.
In accordance with the Presidential Decree dated 30 December 2013 number 583 the Republican Unitary Enterprise "Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant" performs the functions of the customer and the operating organization in charge of commissioning, operation, control performance, lifetime extension and decommissioning of the Belarusian nuclear power plant.
Heat output totalled 254,9 petajoules (PJ) in 2014 and was generated from gas (88,6%), biofuels and waste (8%), oil (2,1%), peat (1,3%) and coal (less than 0,1%). Natural gas use in heat generation has fallen by 7,4% over the 10 years to 2014, albeit its share in generation has increased from 84,8% in 2004 as total heat production declined by 11,4% over the same period.
Biofuels and waste and peat use grew by 105,3% and 11,8%, respectively, while the use of coal and oil is close to being phased out (declining by 97,7% and 81,1% during 2004-14, respectively ). The power generation sector consumes around 14% of TPES, with 6,3% in co-generation plants, 5,9% in electricity plants and 1.,9% in heat plants. Around 9% of total energy supply in Belarus is consumed in the processing sector other than power generation – refineries and energy own-use – while 3,4% are losses.
The total primary energy supply is mainly consisting of natural gas. In 2016 around 60% of the TPES was natural gas. Crude oil use is mostly steady since 2000 with a share of around 15%. Energy from renewable energies is mostly generated from biomass (in 2016 5%).
Calculations: Austrian Energy Agency
Last update: 09 2019